If it is an update...

The mechanical part

The mechanical part (continuation)

The logical part: the BIOS


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Juan Herrerías Rey

Essentials of the update of computers

What is... the motherboard?

What is... the BIOS?

What is... the memory RAM?

Articles about basic badges

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To install a motherboard


The motherboard is the spine of the PC, where they get connected the practical totality of his components: microprocessor, memory, cards of expansion... For it, to install a motherboard is the most important step (and one of the most complex) at the time of mounting a computer.

Also, the element that more soon remains antiquated in the PCs is the microprocessor. In an ideal world, when this was happening it would be enough to remove it and to make one more powerful; nevertheless, in the real life rarely we can do it, due to multiple causes: changes of voltage, incompatibilities of socket, incompatible BIOS... In such cases, we have not left any more remedy to change the whole motherboard.

Of course, to install a motherboard is a delicate operation in which multiple knowledge puts itself in game; for it, the information is slightly complex, but the fact is that it is for understood... or at least enteradillos.

If it gets into debt in saving a few thousands of pesetas of labor or is determined to learn computer do-it-yourself be as it is, there you... and there we go!!!


If it is an update...

We are going to consider the previous steps that it must continue if what he claims is to change a motherboard into other one. First of all, and as he explains himself in Essentials of the update of computers:

  • look for a clear place (a big table will serve) where it could extend everything what he needs and have it within reach of the hand. The diverse operations will take one hour, and of course everything is fine, so bear it in mind;
  • disconnect any electrical feeding, as well as the monitor and other peripheral day pupils;
  • unburden of static electricity before starting (I did not work on a carpeting);
  • verify that it has all the necessary information of his computer: memory, hard disk, etc. If you are going to change a badge into other one, aim at all the information of the BIOS... just in case.

Fact this, let's start:


1. - Verify the format of the current box of his computer. Nowadays the practical totality of the basic badges they are of format ATX, while most of the "classic" basic badges (for Pentium MMX or previous) use the format "Baby-AT". Next basic schemes of both formats appear:

Scheme of a badge typical Baby-AT
Top graph: scheme of a badge typical Baby-AT; the positions of the connector of the keyboard (of the type DOUGH of 5 pines breadth) and of the expansion grooves those of the mike are fixed, not this way, the memory and the connectors for discs, which can change according to the concrete case. In the most modern badges groove AGP will exist.

Low graph: scheme of a badge typical ATX; the positions of the connector of the keyboard (of the micro type dough), the grooves of expansion and the microprocessor are fixed, not this way those of the memory and the connectors for discs, which can change lightly according to the concrete case.
Scheme of a badge typical ATX

If it is a question of a mark computer, very probably the box is not even standard, especially if it is 486 or low; if it is a clonal one, it will have more possibilities. In case of doubt, or if his box is Baby-AT, buy a new box without doubting it (it will not cost him any more than 10.000 pts, and that for those of major quality and services). On the buy of a quality box, pulsate here.

To know something more about the formats of the basic badges, go to the corresponding paragraph in: What is... the motherboard?


Detail of the desinstalación of the cards of expansion

2. - Seguidamente, cove the ancient box and disconnect all the cards of expansion (videocard and of sound, for example). For it, extract the screw that joins them to the box in his end and pull carefully outside; try not to double any condenser on the above mentioned cards. Extract them pulling his rims and the metal badge of the end, or holding them in free areas of electronic components.


3. - Disconnect and/or it dismantles everything what the access to the badge prevents him, in addition to the connectors from going to the same one, like that of feeding. Point where every thing was connected and of what form, and arrange everything what it is extracting (typically some cables and perhaps the hard disk or the CD - ROM).


Detail of the dividers of plastic of a motherboard

4. - With the disconnected motherboard of everything, observe if the box allows to separate the panel on which it is screwed; if it is like that, extract it. Fact this (or also if it is not possible to separate), I unscrewed the badge of the above mentioned panel; typically, it will be fastened for between two and four screws, not more.

Seguidamente, releases the dividers of plastic that in some boxes complete the mooring of the badge to the panel. If they resist, try to use a few tweezers or to cut them with a lot of care (in whose case will need more for the new badge).


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