Essentials of the update of computers

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How to mount your own local network

The topology of the network

It is the form in which the computers are joined some to others and it depends, between other factors, on if it is a question of a network of coaxial cable or of braided pair.

Pin in T for coaxial cable

The topology of a network of coaxial cable is a line, a chain of computers joined the only cable by means of a few pieces in the shape of "T" that go out of this one. If the cable breaks the communication is interrupted in the whole network, which does not happen if what has been disconnected is only the end of the T that joins the computer with the cable, in whose case only this computer loses the communication with the network.

Topology of a network of coaxial cable Finishing for coaxial cable

In the ends of the network there must exist two small pieces (one for end) that they are named finishing, and that they must be 50 ohms; generally they join an end of the T of two computers of the ends. It is necessary to make to notice that although we speak simply of T, sometimes it is a question of a cable that in the end joins the piece in T or ends in the above mentioned form. There even exist wall captures (empotrables or not) to connect the computer as if it was a simple capture of television.

The topology of a network of cable of braided pair is a star whose center is the hub, from which a cable departs (that as we said will measure less 100 m long) for every computer. When one of these cables breaks, the communication only remains interrupted between this computer and the network, without affecting to the rest.

Topology of a network of cable of braided pair

In this case we will need of finishing not even pieces in the shape of T, since the connection is realized simply connecting the pin type phone to the card of network and to the hub. As for coaxial cable, wall captures exist to connect the pin, what can be interesting to wire up an office of a certain size leaving captures prepared for his future use.

The buy of the material

First of all, plan well. Know what he is going to need, how it is called and how much needs. Study the sketch that did previously and I calculated how many meters of cable he needs for every stretch of the network; do not do it roughly, it is very easy to be wrong. Once calculated, he adds a good cable piece just in case; never remain short of cable, it is the way more easy to look for problems.

Go to a confidence shop and buy the whole material simultaneously. If it notices that they cannot advise him, do not buy there; imagine how they will be at the time of solving problems. As for the hub and the cards of network, buy them of more or less well-known marks, preferably of the same one. Do not mix material of different origin and it will reduce the possible problems, apart from the fact that it will facilitate the installation to him.

Buy the mounted cables or do that they are mounted to measurement. The price will be very similar and there will save itself a heap of effort and of problems, apart from the fact that to mount the connectors he would need to buy a few hardware similar to pliers called crimpadoras that it would not use again. Remember that if he calculated from 7 to 8 meters of cable for stretch, it is preferable that I bought 9 or even 10 m, do not be that then he lacks a pair of centimeters. Do not forget to buy the finishing ones and the T if the network is of coaxial cable, and if he decided on the cable of braided pair remember that it looks alike to the telephone one, but it it is not.

There exist frames of plastic that turn out to be very advisable to protect the cables of unforeseen accidents, in addition to providing a more esthetic completion. If the cable is going to go for the soil they are absolutely essential, unless he wants to change the cable (and the computer to which it is connected) every two months, or if he likes going to the hospital to which they plaster him whenever I trod on it running.

Kit to mount a network of the mark Trust

Also there sell kits for the assembly of small networks with 3, 4 ó 5 computers that include the whole necessary material, but they are not easy to find. If one of these kits buys, verify the dimensions of the included cables, as well as the characteristics of the cards and of the hub to buy the additional material that he needs, to be able to be of the same mark as the manufacturer of the kit.

The assembly of the network

The installation and configuration of the components is in fact quite simple, although the assembly of the cables can take his time, depending on the dimensions of the network. The steps to be continued are:

1. - Read the instructions of installation of the material (cards and hub). If he observes discrepancies in any point, pay attention to the information provided with the material and not to this one, who LACKS COMPLETELY GUARANTEE. Then it does not take revenge with complaints; it is warned, I feign ignorance of the possible problems...

2. - Insert the cards of network in the computers. For it open them, having in all that the precautions that are explained in Essentials of the update of computers (remember to disconnect the electrical cables of the computer and the peripheral ones) and observe the grooves; ISA is usually black women and of approximately 14 cm, the white PCI and of approximately 8,5 cm. Verify that there will not be strange obstacles in the space that will occupy the card (cables, protrusions of other cards, the fan of the mike...)


On having inserted the card, do it with steadfastness but without brusqueness; try not to squash any of the electronic components, some of them are very delicate. Once introduced to ceiling equally, without remaining more raised in the end, assure it with the corresponding screw; if the card is formed by means of jumpers or microswitches instead of for software do not close the box yet.

3. - Install the cables. Pay attention to not doubling them, to piercing them, to squashing them them to stretch, do not be that then believe that what it trumps is the card of network when it is a simple battered cable. Do not leave them hanging not in ways of step, use handlebars for cable or similar; care with the hammers and the guns of staples, sometimes they squash or cut the cable without it being appreciated at first sight. And give them roominess, make not even suspenders scarce.

4. - Install the software of the cards. Here everything depends on his card of network in particular; at present many people are Plug and Play, therefore if he has Windows 95 it will be enough to light the computer and to continue the indications of the screen. In other cases it will have to go to the icon of Adding new hardware of the Control panel or to the Network icon or executing an installation program; read the instructions of his card to know what to do (eye: it is almost sure that they are only in English).

Pantallazo of Windows 3.1 showing departs from the support for networks incorporated (more scarce enough than that of Windows 95 or Windows 3.11 for Groups)

5. - Install the rest of the software. It is possible that in the previous step he has installed everything necessary to himself, but it is probable that there should still install some client or protocol; if he has Windows 3.x for work in group he will have to install the support for network, if it is a question of Windows 95 or NT the process can that it is simpler, in Control panel-> Network-> to Add, but everything depends on his particular case.

To simplify the process of installation of the software it is convenient that all the cards of network are equal or of the same mark, what assures the compatibility and automates the installation; installed one, installed all.

6. - Form the resources to be shared. Again this depends on his operating system, although in Windows 95 it is quite simple and there is realized by means of the icon Network of the Control panel ("to Add Service to share files and printers in networks..."), as well as by means of the Explorer. In Windows NT or 3.x it is similar, as well as in the programs of Novell and others.

Detail of the Explorer of Windows 95 showing how to share a folder

To share the hard disks, CD-ROMs and printers is very simple, although it will have to bear in mind that to share certain resources needs some planning. For example, the impression tasks will need that the printer is connected to a powerful computer, but simultaneously not too used so that the impression works are not eternized. Also it is important to plan what computer we will use for safety copies or to handle devices of massive storage like units Zip, Jaz, DVD, tape recorders of CD - ROM and the others.

Certainly, to share the access to Internet is something moderately complicated; it can be necessary to have additional software, like a Proxy, in addition to installing the protocol TCP/IP in the network. If you want to know more on this, look for information in Internet on Intranets (networks that use the same protocols as Internet).

7. - And to end, an advice. Install some quality games prepared to play several players in network (flight pretenders, arcades of struggle type Quake...) and ENJOYMENT. Seriously he believed that it had mounted a network for something so amoral as to work!!?

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