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Dictionary of the Hardware - R/Z

This is a very particular dictionary; as his name indicates, it will not find all the proper terms of the computer science, but "only" those that concern the hardware, especially the initials, of dark meaning, especially if the English language is not known.

Devices and devices appear not only, but also words that refer to protocols, norms, or very basic terms of the software or which relation with the hardware makes essential to know his meaning.

For his extension, it has split into 3 documents, including this one. To find a word:

  1. kitchen boy in the following table in the letter by which it starts for what he looks;
  2. move in vertical up to finding the word in question;
  3. pulsate in the button Behind of his navigator or go to the beginning or end of the page.
0-9 TO B C D AND F G H

RAM: Random Access Memory, or Random access memory. The principal memory in which the information is stored during the functioning of a computer, which resigns on having extinguished it. Of diverse types (Fast Page, EDO, SRAM...) and connectors (SIMM, DIMM...).

RAMDAC: analogical - digital converter (DAC) of the memory RAM, used in the graphic cards to transform the digital sign with which the computer is employed at an analogical exit that could understand the monitor.

RDSI: Digital network of Integrated Services, the digital phone lines, with typical wealths of 64 ó 128 Kbps (kilobaudios per second).

refresh rate: valuation of refreshment of screen; the number of times in second that draws in the monitor a screen. Major all that is, better; it measures itself in hertzes (Hz).

RISC: Reduced Instruction Set Chip, a type of microprocessor that understands only a few instructions but that is capable of executing them at big speed.

ROM: Read Only Memory, or Memory of only reading. A type of "static" memory, that is to say, that does not resign on having extinguished the computer and at first in the one that cannot write herself, unless special methods should be used. Used especially to keep the BIOS of the computer.

RS232: the standard type of port series.

SAI: System of Uninterrupted Feeding. Device that protects the computer of sudden changes of the electrical flow, simultaneously that prepares any lack of the same one.

SB 16: SoundBlaster 16, a sound card of 16 bits of Creative Labs on which the current standard is based for sound cards of the one that takes the name.

scanner: device capable of digitizing information; it usually refers to the one that is capable of digitizing images, texts or photos.

SCSI: Small Computer Systems Interface, technology for the devices handling, so much interns as externally. He allows to handle up to 7 hard disks, CD-ROMs, escáners... More rapid and versatile than IDE, is the standard for computers of high scale, both PCs and Apple Machintosh, servants UNIX, etc.

SDRAM: Synchronous DRAM, type of memory RAM of better characteristics than the DRAM, FPM and EDO.

SGRAM: type of memory used for works of video, based on the SDRAM. Of better characteristics than the FPM, EDO, VRAM, WRAM and SDRAM.

shareware: a form of distribution of software, based on it to be able to prove a time before deciding to buy it. Not to confuse with freeware (free software).

SIMM: type of connector for memory RAM. It exists in versions for modules of 30 and 72 contacts.

SL: initials that allude to microprocessors with characteristics of energy saving, capable of using the Suspend Mode to reduce his activity even practically to stop.

slave: in Spanish "slave", the name assigned to the second one of two devices of a channel IDE, in contrast to the "master's degree", which is the first one.

slot: or expansion groove; each of the connectors where they get a job ("puncture") the cards of expansion. Of elongated form and variable length, according to the technology to which they belong: ISA, EISA, VESA, PCI, AGP...

socket: English word that means socket (generally that of the microprocessor).

software: the programs of computer, the logic that allows to realize tasks to the hardware (the physical part).

speaker: English word that means loudspeaker. In general it designates to the small internal loudspeaker of the computer or PC-speaker.

SPP: Standard Parallel Port, the current way of naming to the standard type of parallel port to distinguish it from other more advanced versions like ECP or EPP.

SRAM: Static-RAM, static RAM. A type of memory of big speed used generally for cache memory.

super-Disk: device of storage of information, consisting of a unit reader - tape recorder and a support of information of form and size similar to a 3.5 inches diskette and capacity 120 MB. Designed by the company Imation, it supports the compatibility with the 3,5 inches classic diskettes.

SVGA: type of graphic card capable of obtaining even 800x600 points in 16 colors.

SX: initials with which 486 Intel "economic ones" it knows to the processors 386 ó, those that are versions of limited capacities (lacking in co-processor in the 486 or external bus of 16 bits in the 386).

finishing: small electronic device based on electrical resistances, used in networks of coaxial cable to finish the chain of connected computers of open form (without doing a ring).

TFT: or counterfoil activates. Type of screen for portable; of major price that Dual Scan, the imágen quality does not depend on the exterior lighting as in these.

trackball: device prompter similar to the mouse in which there moves with the hand, the thumb or the index a ball connected to a base that remains fixed.

Merman: commercial way of designating a series of chipsets of Intel, the FX, VX and HX.

TWAIN: Technology Without An Interesting Name, "technology without an interesting name". Peculiar denomination for the drivers standard for escáners.

TX: initials that designate the last one of the chipsets for Pentium made by Intel, characterized for supporting memoirs SDRAM and optimized for mikes MMX, but with a 66 MHz maximum bus.

UART: the chip that controls the ports series.

UDF: Universal Disk Format, a method derived from the IPW that is used in modern CD - ROM tape recorders to manage more efficiently the writing of the information. Ideal to realize recordings in multiple meetings.

Ultra-DMA: technology used on the hard disks the most modern IDE to raise the valuation of maximum theoretical transference up to 33 Mb / century

UNIX: an operating system multiuser and multitask.

USB: Universal Serial Bus, bus universal series. Type of connector that he can support up to 126 peripheral day pupils, with a band to be shared of 1,5 MB/s, what makes it especially indicated for mice, printers, joysticks or modems.

V.32bis: an international norm for communications route modem that allows to reach a speed of 14.400 bauds.

V.34: an international norm for communications route modem that allows to reach a speed of 28.800 bauds.

V.34 +: an international norm for communications route modem that allows to reach a speed of 33.600 bauds.

V.90: an international norm for communications route modem that allows to reach a maximum speed of 55.600 bauds, depending on certain conditions, especially type and quality of the line.

VESA: (1) a standard of ways of video for cards VGA and Superiors, that he allows to programme drivers compatible with all the graphic cards that fulfill these norms, independently of the chip that they incorporate.

VESA: (2) to see VLB, Vesa Local Bus.

VGA: Video Graphics Array, or Graphic Video device. A type of graphic card capable of obtaining even 640x480 points in 16 colors (in the original standard model).

virtual (device): the one that is imitated by means of software and the capacities of other devices yes existing, like for example a mathematical co-processor imitated by Linux by means of the microprocessor.

virtual (memory): the one that is imitated by software from the hard disk.

VLB: or Vesa Local Bus, a type of slot or groove of expansion of 32 bits capable of offering up to 132 MB/s to 33 MHz or 160 MB/s to 40 MHz.

VRAM: type of memory used for works of video. Of better characteristics than the FPM and EDO.

VRM: module of voltages of mike.

VX: initials that there designates a type of chipset of Intel for Pentium known commercially like "Merman III"; of major yield than the FX, nowadays in desuetude.

WAN: Wide Area Net, network of wide area. A network of computers of very big size, it disperses for a country or even all over the planet.

WAV: the most common type of sound file, characterized for offering a big quality but without compression of the information.

wave table: wave table. Type of technology used in sound cards, consistent in using for the reproduction of the sound real samples of instruments recorded in the memory of the card, obtaining a quality much major than with a synthesizer FM.

WRAM: type of memory used for works of video. Of better characteristics than the FPM and EDO, and something superior to the VRAM.

WWW: World Wide Web, or "big world web". The most well-known and used part of Internet.

WYSIWYG: What You See Is What You Get, that is to say, "what it sees is what it obtains". The methodology of the programs of Windows (and Mac and others, in fact), consistent in that the final score once printed is seen from the beginning on the screen of the computer, in contrast to what it happens with the programs for TWO, for example.

XENIX: an operating system multiuser and multitask based on UNIX.

XGA: extend Graphics Array, or widespread graphic device. A type of graphic card capable of obtaining even 1024x768 points in 16 colors.

XMS: widespread memory, a way of gaining access to the top memory (over the first 640 Kb), by means of software as the HIMEM.SYS.

XT: type of computer compatible with the so called model of this form for IBM. In general, any PC compatible with hard disk and a processor 8086 or Superior.

ZIF: Zero Insertion Force (socket), or socket of force of void insertion. Connector of square form in which they install some types of microprocessor to themselves, characterized for using a palanquita who helps to install it without exercising pressure I ("Forced") on the sideburns of the chip, very delicate.

ZIP: (1) type of compressed file. Much used, especially in Internet, it was designed by the company PKWARE.

Zip: (2) device of storage of information, consisting of a unit reader - tape recorder and a support of information of form and size similar to a 3.5 inches diskette and capacity 100 MB. Designed by the company Iomega.


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