principal page
what is...
to update
Contact Us
forum and chat


© Juan Enrique
Smithies King

The book Hardware and components. Edition 2006


This book, which must not make a mistake with a previous version published by the same publishing house (Hardware and components. Edition 2004, which author is Pedro A. López Cruz), is the result of years of experience with the hardware PC and many months of hard work of papers, writing and achievement of more than two hundred photos and schemes, exhibited of clear and lively form. In a certain way, it is what the web site Knows his Hardware he always wanted to become, captured in role.


Principal information and critique

Front of the book "Hardware and components. Edition 2006"
Title Hardware and components. Edition 2006
Author Juan Enrique Herrerías Rey
Publishing house MULTIMEDIA ANAYA
Page 640
Format 17,60 x 22,50 cm.
Reference (Anaya) 2310627
Number ISBN. 84-415-1979-X
Code EAN 9788441519794
I boast recom. with VAT 34,50 euros (aprox. US$ 44,00)
Binding Rustic I Spin
Edition 1st
Date of publication March, 2006

"Hardware and components. Edition 2006" is a finished and wide manual on the hardware of the PC that takes as a target to serve as reference guide on each and everyone of the aspects related to the different components that form a personal computer.

In this book the essential internal elements are analyzed so much in the architecture of the computers like the accessories of more habitual use: from the microprocessor and the motherboard up to the digital cameras and the printers multifunctionality, from the professional and managerial environment up to the most playful housekeeping.

It is a question of a detailed, current and lively guide centred on the skill but avoiding the tecnicismos. It does not limit itself to theoretical descriptions, but it raises the practical questions which there faces the user, like what hardware to acquire, how to be installed it and to form it.

The book is directed so much to users who try to complete his formation as to those who want to discover the entrails of a PC.


General index


How to use this book

1. The microprocessor

2. The memory RAM

3. The motherboard

4. The graphic card

5. The monitor

6. The hard disk

7. The technologies SCSI, SAS and RAID

8. Optical storage devices

9. Portable storage devices       

10. Other devices for storage
     and safety copies

11. Photo, video and television in the PC

12. Printers, scanners and multifunctional

13. Local networks and devices of network

14. Communications and access to Internet

15. Sound devices

16. Other components, devices and peripheral

17. The hardware in the portable PCs

Appendix To. Assembly of the PC and basic configuration

Appendix B. The configuration of the BIOS

Appendix C. Introduction to the overclocking

Appendix D. Resources in Internet

Alphabetical index


Points of sale

Considering the importance of the Publishing Group Anaya, the book can be in almost any bookstore of Spain and Latin America, or take charge with facility indicating his number ISBN; to acquire it on-line, it can come to the button "TO ENTRUST BOOK" of this page of Anaya Multimedia, to Commercial Group Anaya, or simply to look for the book in Google.

For orders of 5 books or more, it can be contacted straight with the author in the direction (eye, "" the servant of this web site represents, " " or " " well). In these orders of 5 books or more, the author offers an important discount on the price recommended by the publishing house.


Finished index


How to use this book

1. The microprocessor
      1.1. What is the microprocessor?
            1.1.1. Manufacture of a microprocessor
            1.1.2. External structure of the microprocessor
            1.1.3. The refrigeration of the microprocessor
      1.2. Internal architecture of the microprocessor
            1.2.1. Principal logical parts of a microprocessor
            1.2.2. The architecture x86
            1.2.3. New instructions x86: MMX, 3DNow!, SSE, SSE2 and SSE3
            1.2.4. The world of 64 bits
      1.3. Parameters of functioning of a microprocessor
            1.3.1. Speed of clock (MHz or GHz)
            1.3.2. Bus speed (breadth in bits and MHz)
            1.3.3. Cache memory
            1.3.4. Manufacture technology (microns or nm)
            1.3.5. The voltage of the microprocessor
            1.3.6. Types of nucleus and his progress
            1.3.7. Microprocessors with double nucleus (dual core)
            1.3.8. It marks (Intel or AMD?)
            1.3.9. Improving the yield: pipelining, speculative execution and Hyper-Threading
      1.4. History of the microprocessors PC
            1.4.1. The Law of Moore
            1.4.2. Intel 8088
            1.4.3. Intel 8086
            1.4.4. Intel 80186 and 80188
            1.4.5. Intel 80286 (286)
            1.4.6. Intel 386 (80386DX) and compatible

            1.4.7. Intel 386SX and 386SL
            1.4.8. Intel 486 (80486DX), 486SL and compatible

            1.4.9. Intel 486SX
            1.4.10. Intel 486DX2, 486DX4 and compatible

            1.4.11. Intel Pentium
            1.4.12. AMD K5 and Cyrix 6x86 (M1)
            1.4.13. Pentium MMX
            1.4.14. Pentium Pro
            1.4.15. Pentium II and Celeron based on Pentium II
            1.4.16. Mikes OverDrive
            1.4.17. AMD K6, K6-2 and K6-III
            1.4.18. Other mikes type Socket 7 / Super 7
            1.4.19. Pentium III and Celeron based on Pentium III
            1.4.20. Cyrix III, ROUTE C3 and ROUTE C7
            1.4.21. AMD Athlon and Duron
            1.4.22. Athlon XP, Athlon MP and Sempron for Socket A
            1.4.23. Pentium 4 and Celeron based in P4
            1.4.24. Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX and Sempron for Socket 754
            1.4.25. Pentium D
            1.4.26. Athlon 64 X2
            1.4.27. Mikes Intel for servants and stations of trabajo:Xeon and Itanium
            1.4.28. Mikes AMD for servants and stations of trabajo:Athlon MP and Opteron

2. The memory RAM
      2.1. What is the memory RAM?
      2.2. Interiorities of the subsystem of memory
            2.2.1. The memory controler
            2.2.2. The memory bus
            2.2.3. The cycle of access to the memory
      2.3. Fundamental parameters of the memory
            2.3.1. Access speed (ns)
            2.3.2. Speed of clock (MHz)
            2.3.3. Latencies and CAS
            2.3.4. Band (MB/s) and Dual Channel
            2.3.5. Voltage
      2.4. Types of memory RAM
            2.4.1. SRAM (static RAM)
            2.4.2. FPM (Fast Page Mode)
            2.4.3. EDO (Extend Byline Out) and BEDO
            2.4.4. SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM)
            2.4.5. DDR-SDRAM (Double Data Rate SDRAM)
            2.4.6. RDRAM (Rambus DRAM) or DRDRAM
            2.4.7. DDR2
            2.4.8. DDR3
            2.4.9. Other future alternatives
      2.5. Memory modules
            2.5.1. Modules SIMM, DIMM and RIMM
            2.5.2. Modules registered and unbuffered
            2.5.3. Modules with parity or with ECC
            2.5.4. Autoconfiguration of the module: chip SPD
            2.5.5. The encapsulated one of the chips of memory
            2.5.6. Some practical advices on the memory modules
      2.6. How much memory RAM is needed?
            2.6.1. The virtual memory
      2.7. Other important memoirs of the PC
            2.7.1. The cache memory
            2.7.2. The graphic memory or of video
            2.7.3. The memory ROM

3. The motherboard
      3.1. Shape factors
            3.1.1. PC/XT, AT and Baby AT
            3.1.2. ATX and Mini-ATX
            3.1.3. LPX, Mini-LPX and NLX
            3.1.4. BTX
            3.1.5. Limited formats: Mini, mike (and I sting) ATX, BTX and ITX and Shuttle SFF/XPC
            3.1.6. WTX and other formats
      3.2. The components of the motherboard
            3.2.1. Socket (socket) of the microprocessor
            3.2.2. Memory grooves
            3.2.3. Control Chipset
         Structure of the chipset
         Brief (?) history of the chipset anterioresal Pentium 4 and the Athlon 64
         Chipsets of last generation for Pentium 4
         Chipsets of last generation for Athlon 64
         More information on chipsets
            3.2.4. The BIOS
         Update of the BIOS
         The process of starter (POST)
         Configuration of the BIOS
            3.2.5. External cache memories
            3.2.6. Grooves for cards of expansion
         Grooves ISA
         Grooves MCA and EISA
         Grooves Local VESA Bus (VL-Bus or VLB)
         Grooves PCI
         Groove AGP
         Grooves PCI Express (PCI-E or PCIe x1, x16, etc.)
         "Auxiliary" grooves: AMR, CNR, ACR
            3.2.7. External connectors
            3.2.8. Internal connectors
            3.2.9. Electrical connectors
            3.2.10. Jumpers and switches DIP
            3.2.11. Different integrated elements
      3.3. Basic badges for servants and workstations
      3.4. The resources management and energy in the PC and his relation with the motherboard
            3.4.1. The resources of the system
         Interruptions of the system (IRQ)
         Channels DMA
         Directions of ports of Entry / Salidae intervals of directions of memory
            3.4.2. Historical evolution of the resource allocation in the PC
            3.4.3. Energy management in the PC
         Energy Star
      3.5. The monitoring of the motherboard and the systems of management of teams
            3.5.1. Monitoring by means of the motherboard
            3.5.2. Systems of administration of teams and his relation with the motherboard

4. The graphic card
      4.1. Fundamental concepts on the graphic cards
            4.1.1. The screen resolution
            4.1.2. The number of colors (quality or depth of the color)
            4.1.3. The video way
            4.1.4. The picture frequency of screen and the RAMDAC
            4.1.5. Video memory
            4.1.6. The controlers or drivers
      4.2. History of the graphic cards for PC
            4.2.1. Way text

            4.2.2. CGA
            4.2.3. MDA
            4.2.4. Hércules
            4.2.5. EGA
            4.2.6. VGA
            4.2.7. SVGA, XGA, ways VESA and Superiors
      4.3. The connections of the graphic card
            4.3.1. Grooves for graphic cards
            4.3.2. External connectors
            4.3.3. Other internal connectors
      4.4. The world of the cards 3D
            4.4.1. DirectX and OpenGL
            4.4.2. The generation of images 3D
      4.5. The election of the graphic card and his yield

5. The monitor
      5.1. Basic concepts on monitors
            5.1.1. The size of the monitor
            5.1.2. The screen resolution
            5.1.3. The relation of aspect of the monitor
            5.1.4. The point size (dot / pixel pitch)
            5.1.5. The connection with the graphic card
      5.2. Monitors of pipe (CRT)
            5.2.1. Masks and grills
            5.2.2. Frequencies of horizontal scanning (kHz)
            and vertical or refreshment (Hz)
            5.2.3. Flat monitors and of short pipe
            5.2.4. Adjustment control panel
      5.3. Monitors LCD (TFT)
            5.3.1. The time of answer of a LCD
            5.3.2. The color in the monitors TFT
            5.3.3. Sheen and contrast

            5.3.4. The dead pixels and the guarantee
            5.3.5. Other interest details on the LCD
         Vision angle
         Assembly in wall or supports
         Internal feeding
         Loudspeakers or connectors integrated USB
         Adjustment control panel
      5.4. Monitor CRT or LCD?
            5.4.1. Advantages and disadvantages of the LCD
            5.4.2. Advantages and disadvantages of the CRT
      5.5. Tactile screens
      5.6. Some practical advices and the ergonomics

6. The hard disk
      6.1. What is a hard disk?
            6.1.1. The magnetic technology
            6.1.2. Physical structure of a hard disk
            6.1.3. Parking and shock of heads
      6.2. Specifications hardware fundamental of a hard disk
            6.2.1. The physical format
            6.2.2. The capacity: GB... approximately
            6.2.3. The rotation speed
            6.2.4. The internal speed
            6.2.5. The size of the buffer or cache memory
            6.2.6. The external speed or of the interface
            6.2.7. The times of search and the latency
            6.2.8. S.M.A.R.T., thermal recalibration and A/V
            6.2.9. Acoustic generation
            6.2.10. Conditions of functioning and other specifications
      6.3. The interface of disc and the connectors
            6.3.1. The interface TIES / IDE / EIDE
         Basic questions on ATA / ATAPI / EIDE
         Connections and cables for ATA / ATAPI / EIDE
         Transference ways: PEEP, DMA and Ultra DMA
         Norms IT TIES
            6.3.2. The interface SCSI
            6.3.3. The Serial interface TIES (SATA)
         The Serial speed TIES
         NCQ (Native Command Queuing)
         Connectors and adapters Serial TIES
            6.3.4. Interfaces for external hard disks connection
      6.4. The BIOS and the logical barriers to the size of the hard disks
            6.4.1. The limits of size and his causes
         134 MB limits or less
         The limit of 528 MB
         The limits of the 2,1 GB
         The limit of the 3,3 GB
         The limits of the 4 GB
         The limit of the 8,4 GB
         The limit of the 32 GB
         The limit of the 33,8 GB
         The limit of the 137 GB
            6.4.2. Solutions by means of the BIOS
            6.4.3. Other solutions to the size limits
      6.5. Installation and administration software of the hard disks
            6.5.1. Divisions creation
            6.5.2. Formatting and systems of files
         Classic FAT (FAT12, FAT16 and VFAT)
         Formatting of the disc

         Formatting of low level
            6.5.3. Desfragmentación
            6.5.4. Compression of the disc

            6.5.5. Safety copies

7. The technologies SCSI, SAS and RAID
      7.1. The technology SCSI
            7.1.1. The SCSI advantages
            7.1.2. The multiple SCSI versions
            7.1.3. Fundamental concepts on the technology SCSI
         Breadth of bus, speed and band
         Topology, completion and identification of devices (SCSI GO)
         Electrical codification of the signs
         Number of devices and length of the cable
         LBA, QAS and other details on the protocolode communications SCSI
            7.1.4. The norms SCSI
            7.1.5. Compatibility between devices SCSI
            7.1.6. Connectors SCSI
         Internal connectors
         External connectors
         The connectors SCA and SCA-2
            7.1.7. The SCSI future
      7.2. The technology SAS (Serial Attached SCSI)
            7.2.1. Connectors of the interface SAS
            7.2.2. SATA or SAS?
      7.3. The technology RAID
            7.3.1. JBOD (linking of discs)
            7.3.2. RAID 0 (striping)
            7.3.3. RAID 1 (mirroring)
            7.3.4. RAID 2 (bit striping + Hamming Code)
            7.3.5. RAID 3 (byte striping + Parity)
            7.3.6. RAID 4 (striping + Parity)
            7.3.7. RAID 5 (striping + distributed Parity)
            7.3.8. Systems sheltered (RAID 10 and RAID 50)
         RAID 0+1 (RAID 01 ó 0/1)
         RAID 10 (RAID 1+0 ó 1/0)
         RAID 50 (RAID 5+0)
            7.3.9. Other types of RAID

8. Optical storage devices
      8.1. The technology of optical storage
      8.2. The CD and his variants (CD - ROM and others)
            8.2.1. CD audio (CD GIVES)
            8.2.2. CD - ROM
            8.2.3. CD-R
            8.2.4. CD-RW
            8.2.5. Other formats
         CD-i (interactive CD)
         CD - ROM XA
         Photo CD
         Extra CD or Enhanced CD
         Video CD (VCD)
         Super Video CD (SVCD)
      8.3. The DVD and his variants (DVD-ROM and others)
            8.3.1. DVD-Video (DVD)
            8.3.2. DVD-Audio
            8.3.3. Super Audio CD (SACD)
            8.3.4. DVD-ROM
            8.3.5. DVD-R and DVD-RW
            8.3.6. DVD+R and DVD+RW
            8.3.7. DVD-RAM
      8.4. Optical units: readership and tape recorders
            8.4.1. The process of recording of CD and DVD
      8.5. The optical formats of the future
            8.5.1. Blue-ray Disc (BD)
            8.5.2. HD DVD

9. Portable storage devices
      9.1. (Almost extinguished) diskette
      9.2. Frustrated substitutes of the diskette
            9.2.1. Units Zip
            9.2.2. SuperDisk LS-120 and LS-240
            9.2.3. Sony HiFD
      9.3. Cards of memory flash
            9.3.1. The memory flash
            9.3.2. The speed of the cards of memory
            9.3.3. Formats of cards of memory
         PC Card and CardBus (cards PCMCIA)
         CompactFlash (CF)
         Miniature Card (MiniCard)
         SmartMedia Card (SMC)
         MultiMediaCard (MMC) and MMCplus
         Digital Secure (SD)
         Memory Stick (MS) and Memory Stick PRO
         xD-Picture Card (xD)
         Cards mini of limited format
            9.3.4. Readership and adapters for cards of memory
      9.4. Discs turnkey (pendrives) of memory USB
            9.4.1. Discs turnkey USB with MP3
      9.5. Portable hard disks
            9.5.1. Microdrive and other "micro" formats
            9.5.2. Portable discs by means of adapter

10. Other devices for storage and safety copies
      10.1. The massive information storage
            10.1.1. Accessibility of the information
            10.1.2. The capacity
            10.1.3. The speed and the access time
            10.1.4. Storage technologies
            10.1.5. Connection interfaces
            10.1.6. WORM
      10.2. The safety copies (backups)
      10.3. Magnetic tapes
            10.3.1. Tapes QIC, Travan and SLR
            10.3.2. Tapes DDS / DAT (of 4 mm)
            10.3.3. Tapes DLT and SDLT
            10.3.4. Tapes LTO (Ultrium)
            10.3.5. Tapes AIT and SAIT
            10.3.6. Tapes VXA
      10.4. Storage in network (NAS and SAN)
      10.5. Other devices (in progressive desuetude)
            10.5.1. Magneto-optic (MO)
            10.5.2. Iomega REV
            10.5.3. Devices in desuetude
         Iomega Jaz
         SyQuest SyJet, SparQ and EZFlyer
         Castlewood ORB

11. Photo, video and television in the PC
      11.1. The digital photo and the PC
            11.1.1. Basic beginning on photo
         35 mm Chambers
         Focal distance
         Obstruction speed
         The field depth
         Gap and numbers f
         Speed of movie ISO
            11.1.2. Types of digital cameras

            11.1.3. Fundamental parameters of the digital cámarasfotográficas

         Optical zoom and digital zoom
         Sensors, megapixels and equivalence in réflex
         Storage in cards of memory flash
         The screen of the camera
         Transference, visualization and impression of the photos
         Video functions
         Batteries and batteries
         Other advanced details
            11.1.4. Photographic finishing touch in the PC
      11.2. The video and the PC
            11.2.1. Some concepts on the digital video (and the analogical one)
         Pictures and systems of television emission
         Interlaced and progressive video
         Formats of file of digital video
         The bit rate
            11.2.2. The video apprehension
            11.2.3. Connectors for video apprehension
            11.2.4. The edition of digital video
            11.2.5. The necessary team to capture and to edit digital video
      11.3. Sintonizadoras of TV
            11.3.1. Digital television
      11.4. Projectors
            11.4.1. Types of projectors
            11.4.2. Fundamental information of a projector

12. Printers, scanners and multifunctional
      12.1. Essential concepts on printers
            12.1.1. The impression speed
            12.1.2. The impression resolution
            12.1.3. The buffer and the memory of impression
            12.1.4. Times of starter and impression of the first page
            12.1.5. The connection interface
         Parallel port or LPT
         Port USB
         Network Ethernet
         Other connection interfaces
            12.1.6. Languages PostScript, PCL and GDI
            12.1.7. The drivers software
            12.1.8. Impression cost for page
      12.2. Types of printers
            12.2.1. Impact printers (matriciales)
            12.2.2. Ink printers
            12.2.3. Laser printers
            12.2.4. Photographic printers
            12.2.5. Other types of printers
      12.3. What is a scanner?
            12.3.1. Reception of the image

            12.3.2. The scanning resolution
            12.3.3. The colors and the bits
      12.4. Types of scanner
            12.4.1. Scanners CCD and CIS
            12.4.2. Scanner formats
         Of dessert or planes
         Of hand
         Of roller
         Special models
            12.4.3. The interface of connection of the scanner
         Parallel port
         Port USB
         Interface SCSI
      12.5. The digitization of images and text

            12.5.1. How much occupies an image?
            12.5.2. Standards and interfaces: TWAIN and ISIS
            12.5.3. Text recognition: OCR
            12.5.4. Necessary hardware to scan
      12.6. Devices multifunctionality

13. Local networks and devices of network
      13.1. Some concepts on networks
            13.1.1. Types of networks
            13.1.2. Topology of local network
         Bus topology
         Ring topology
         Star topology
            13.1.3. The model OSI and his implementation in TCP/IP
         Layer of application (he gelds 7, application layer)
         Layer of presentation (he gelds 6, presentation layer)
         Layer of meeting (he gelds 5, session layer)
         Layer of transport (he gelds 4, transport layer)
         Layer of network (he gelds 3, network layer)
         Layer of linkage of information (he gelds 2, dates link layer)
         Physical layer (he gelds 1, physical layer)
         Implementation of the model OSI in TCP/IP
      13.2. Local networks Ethernet
            13.2.1. The direction MAC
            13.2.2. CSMA/CD and the collisions
            13.2.3. Wiring and connectors for Ethernet
         Coaxial cable
         Cable of braided pair
         Optical fibre cable
            13.2.4. Standards Ethernet
         Ethernet to 10 Mbits/s
         Ethernet to 100 Mbits/s (Fast Ethernet)
         Ethernet to 1 Gbit/s (Gigabit Ethernet)
         Ethernet to 10 Gbits/s (10 Gigabit Ethernet)
      13.3. Network devices
            13.3.1. Cards of network (NIC)
         Wake on LAN (WOL)
         Starter of the PC from the network (PXE)
            13.3.2. Relay and concentrating (hubs)
            13.3.3. Bridges (bridges) and switches (switches)
            13.3.4. Gateways and encaminadores (routers)
            13.3.5. Fire-break (firewalls)
      13.4. Wireless local networks
            13.4.1. Standards IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi)
            13.4.2. Devices of network Wi-Fi
            13.4.3. Safety in networks Wi-Fi
            13.4.4. Bluetooth
      13.5. Other physical systems of local network

14. Communications and access to Internet
      14.1. The classic telephone connection: the modem
            14.1.1. Basic aspects of the comunicaciónpor analogical modem
            14.1.2. Modems hardware and modems software
            14.1.3. External modems and internal modems
            14.1.4. The speed of the modem, the UART and the estándaresde communications
            14.1.5. The commands Hayes or AT
            14.1.6. Other functions of the modem
         Correction of errors and compression of information
         Modems - faxes
         Voice functions
      14.2. The digital alternative: RDSI
      14.3. Connection of wide band by means of xDSL
      (ADSL, ADSL2, etc.)
      14.4. Connection of wide band by means of cable modem
      14.5. Other systems of Internet connection of wide band

15. Sound devices
      15.1. Brief history of the sound in the PC
      15.2. Basic concepts on the digital sound
            15.2.1. Digital sampling: kHz, bits and ADC / DAC
            15.2.2. The polyphony, the voices and the channels
            15.2.3. The synthesis FM
            15.2.4. The synthesis for wave table
      15.3. The sound card and other devices
            15.3.1. Sound cards
            15.3.2. Integrated sound systems
            15.3.3. External sound devices
            15.3.4. Sound devices independent from the PC
      15.4. Sound connectors
            15.4.1. 3,5 mm mini - jack
            15.4.2. Digital connection S/PDIF
            15.4.3. Port for joystick / MIDI
            15.4.4. Internal connectors
      15.5. Formats of recording and sound reproduction
            15.5.1. Formats without compression: PCM, WAV, IFF, RIFF, AIFF
            15.5.2. Formats with compression: MP3, WMA, ACC, OGG, AC3 (Dolby), DTS and others
            15.5.3. MIDI
      15.6. The loudspeakers and the surrounding sound

16. Other components, devices and peripheral
      16.1. The keyboard
      16.2. The mouse and his substitute ones
      16.3. Devices for games
      16.4. The box of the PC
            16.4.1. Orientations, sizes and formats of formade the boxes for PC
            16.4.2. Control panel, lights and connectors of the boxes for PC
            16.4.3. Elements, structure and distribution of a cajapara PC
      16.5. The power supply of the PC
            16.5.1. Basic questions on the power supply
            16.5.2. The potency of the source
            16.5.3. Power supply shape factors for PC
            16.5.4. Connectors of the power supply
            16.5.5. Some recommendations on the buy of fuentesde feeding for PC
      16.6. Systems of electrical protection and of feeding
      uninterrupted (SAI or UPS)
      16.7. Refrigeration devices

17. The hardware in the portable PCs
      17.1. Types of portable PCs
      17.2. Limitations of the portable PCs
      17.3. Microprocessors for portable
            17.3.1. Technologies Centrino and Turion 64
            17.3.2. Pentium M
            17.3.3. Turion 64
            17.3.4. Celeron M and Sempron of low consumption
            17.3.5. Microprocessors for substitutes of PC of office
            17.3.6. Intel Core Duo (of double nucleus) and Core Solo
      17.4. The memory in the portable ones
      17.5. Graphs and screens for portable
      17.6. The storage in the portable ones
      17.7. Integrated mouse: TouchPad and TrackPoint
      17.8. Connectors and capacity of expansion
            17.8.1. Duplicators of ports and bases of expansion
            17.8.2. Grooves PCMCIA
            17.8.3. Groove mini-PCI

Appendix To. Assembly of the PC and basic configuration
      To 1. Necessary material and fundamental advices

      To 2. Assembly of the microprocessor
      To 3. Assembly of the memory RAM
      To 4. Preparation of the box of the PC
      To 5. Assembly of the motherboard
      To 6. Assembly of the devices of storage
            To 6.1. To install a disk drive
            To 6.2. To install a hard disk
            To 6.3. To install an optical unit of CD or DVD
      To 7. Additional wiring and cards
      To 8. Cross-checks and possible problems
            To 8.1. List of cross-check
            To 8.2. Possible problems
                  The computer does not do anything (or the black screen is)!
                  The computer whistles more than once or non-stop!
                  Memory mistakes!
                  Salt mistakes on having executed programs! The PC is begun again!
      To 9. Configuration of the BIOS

Appendix B. The configuration of the BIOS
      B.1. I access and handle
      B.2. Configuration of the microprocessor
      B.3. Basic options and configuration of the hard disk
      B.4. General advanced options
      B.5. Options advanced for the chipset and the memory
      B.6. Options for peripheral integrated
      B.7. Options of saving of energy
      B.8. Options of configuration PnP / PCI
      B.9. Options of monitoring of the hardware
      B.10. It loads of values for defect

      B.11. Configuration of the password
      B.12. To keep changes and to go out

Appendix C. Introduction to the overclocking
      C.1. What is the overclocking?
      C.2. Risks of the overclocking
      C.3. The overclocking of the microprocessor, the buses and the memory
            C.3.1. To rise the multiplier of the mike
            C.3.2. To raise the speed of the bus Federal Security Service
            C.3.3. To change both the multiplier and the velocidaddel bus Federal Security Service
            C.3.4. To raise the voltage (I am in danger!)
      C.4. The overclocking of the graphic card
      C.5. Some recommendations
      C.6. The refrigeration

Appendix D. Resources in Internet
      D.1. Places with information about the hardware
      D.2. Places with utilities for the hardware

Alphabetical index

To return - Sitemap - Contact us Best website of 2009 & 2010 voted by us are:
, , , , , ,,